The Siberian Crane Grus leucogeranus is regarded as a critically endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, with a global population of 3,500 to 4,000 individuals (Bird Life International 2016).In China (its main wintering range) it is listed as a category I nationally protected species (Li et al. Birds use the Volga river delta as a migration stopover (Rusanov and Chernyavskaya 1996, Kanai et al. Non-breeding During the non-breeding season it feeds mainly on roots, bulbs, tubers (especially of sedges), rhizomes, sprouts and stems of aquatic plants, and sometimes aquatic animals if these are readily available (del Hoyo et al.  In the resulting rearrangement to create monophyletic genera, the Siberian crane was moved to the resurrected genus Leucogeranus. Each spring approximately 500,000 Sandhill Cranes and some endangered Whooping Cranes use the Central Platte River Valley in Nebraska as a staging habitat during their migration north to breeding and nesting grounds in Canada, Alaska, and the Siberian Arctic. Construction of the Three Gorges Dam has changed the hydrological pattern of the lower Yangtze River, resulting in lower water levels in winter. the Memorandum of Understanding concerning Conservation Measures for the Siberian Crane, "Record of two unique observations of the Indian cheetah in Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri", "Phylogeny of cranes (Gruiformes: Gruidae) based on cytochrome-b DNA sequences", "Phenetic relationships within the family Gruidae", "Mitochondrial genome sequences and the phylogeny of cranes (Gruiformes: Gruidae)", "Flufftails, finfoots, rails, trumpeters, cranes, limpkin", "Tableaux synoptiques de l'ordre des Hérons", "[Sexual and individual differences in the vocal repertoire of adult Siberian Cranes (, "How long do birds live The passenger pigeon", "Will the Three Gorges Dam affect the underwater light climate of Vallisneria spiralis L. and food habitat of Siberian crane in Poyang Lake? 1996). Kazakhstan is the only country where long-term migration stopovers of Siberian Cranes are known. Thus, conserving and protecting the Siberian crane would indeed offer conservation services to many other critical species. Males often killed their mates and captive breeding was achieved by artificial insemination and the hatching of eggs by other crane species such as the Sandhill and using floodlights to simulate the longer daylengths of the Arctic summer.. The eastern populations migrate during winter to China while the western population winters in Iran and formerly, in Bharatpur, India . Siberian Cranes are snowy white color birds and migrate during winter to India. 2008, Jiang Hongxing 2010, Jiang Hongxing pers. Twelve important Siberian Crane sites along both Western and Central Flyways are designated in the Western/Central Asian Site Network for the Siberian Crane and other waterbirds established under CMS MoU and UNEP/GEF SCWP, and another 24 sites are proposed for inclusion. Volunteer committees among hunters have been created in Afganistan and Pakistan to share information on crane conservation and extensive poster campaigns and a documentary film have been distributed (Ilyashenko and Mirande 2013). Conservation Actions ProposedStrengthen conservation of major wetlands in China that serve as critical migration and wintering habitat for the East Asian population through research, management, and policy activities. 140 cm. The Siberian village of Oymyakon is regarded as the coldest permanently-inhabited place on earth. 2017). Several types of crane come to Izumi, the most common being the hooded crane. Surveys of the districts and counties around the lake show an increase in birds using the location from around a hundred birds in 1980/81 to an estimated 3,902 individuals in winter 2002/2003, since when the population has fluctuated between lows of around 2,000 individuals in 2008/2009 and 2012/2013, and highs of 3,800-4,000 individuals in the winters of 2005/2006, 2007/2008 and 2011/2012 (Li Fengshan et al. By Lauren Lewis March 11, 2016 June 12th, ... a closer view. Population justificationThe population is estimated at 3,500-4,000 individuals, based on a count of 3,750 at Poyang Lake in 2008 (Yu Changhao et al. Operation of its sluice gates has not been determined, but early proposals called for significantly increased water levels through the winter season, which would make most or all current foraging areas for the cranes inaccessible, perhaps causing extremely rapid declines in the next three generations. , Adults of both genders have a pure white plumage except for the black primaries, alula and primary coverts. A hydro-electric scheme is also proposed for the headwaters of the Aldan River basin, the construction of power lines northwards to Yakutsk, and oil and gas prospecting (Prentice and Stishov 2007). Satellite telemetry was used to track the migration of a flock that wintered in Iran. A commemorative postage stamp on the Wildlife Series – Siberian Crane :. Find out where and when this bird was seen. Hunting on passage and wintering grounds in Iran is the key threat to the Central/Western population (G. Sundar in litt. 2009, P. Khalafbeigi in litt. The central population, which once wintered in Keoladeo National Park,Bharatpur India, is extinct. Huanzidong Reservoir is located northwest of Shenyang, the capital of Liaoning. Pesticide use and pollution is a threat in India. They are distinctive among the cranes, adults are nearly all snowy white, except for their black primary feathers that are visible in flight and with two breeding populations in the Arctic tundra of western and eastern Russia. Most eggs are laid in the first week of June when the tundra is snow free. Males are on average larger than females. In the summer grounds they feed on a range of plants including the roots of hellebore (Veratrum misae), seeds of Empetrum nigrum as well as small rodents (lemmings and voles), earthworms and fish.  In 1974 as many as 75 birds wintered in Bharatpur and this declined to a single pair in 1992 and the last bird was seen in 2002. Birdlife Species Factsheet 3. International Crane Foundation - Siberian Crane page 4.  In captivity, one individual was recorded to have lived for nearly 62 years while another lived for 83 years. Poyang Lake thus drains more rapidly into the Yangtze during the low water period. 1996). Some rarer types like the Siberian crane (now endangered) also migrate here. Siberian Crane autumn migration 2002. Vardhan H. 2002. Population. Conservation Actions UnderwayCITES Appendix I. CMS Appendix I and II. Latest Sightings of Siberian Crane The latest sighting details and map for Siberian Crane are only available to our BirdGuides Ultimate or our BirdGuides Pro subscribers. 1996). The global population is about 3,750, of which over 99% belongs to the Eastern Flyway (Hirschfeld 2008). 2014).The Western/Central Flyway population is divided into Central Asian and Western Asian flocks. The population is estimated at 3,500-4,000 individuals, based on a count of 3,750 at Poyang Lake in 2008 (Yu Changhao et al. If the impacts of these developments prove to be less damaging than is feared, the species may warrant downlisting.  The contexts of several calls have been identified and several of these vary with sex. Non-breeding birds, typically those up to three years old, summer in Dauria on the border between Russia, Mongolia (Tseveenmyadag 2005) and China. They are however noted to pick up beetles and birds eggs in captivity. They dip their beaks in mud and smear it on their feathers. They were noted to rest on the eastern end of the Volga delta. To help protect key wetland sites, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the International Crane Foundation conducted the UNEP/GEF Siberian Crane Wetland Project from 2003-2009, conceived in 1998, to protect and manage a network of sites across Asia critical to Siberian Cranes and 26 other threatened species (del Hoyo et al. As a result of water diversions and climate fluctuations, floods and droughts are increasingly frequent at Poyang. Cooperate with gas and oil companies in Russia and China to minimize disturbance and habitat degradation. Researchers monitoring breeding sites in the remote Yakutia region incorporated remote sensing given the difficulties monitoring on the ground (Stishov and Bysykatova 2008). The Kaladeo Ghana National Park or the Bharatpur National Park has been declared a world heritage site because the Siberian Crane traverses nearly half of the globe to reach it. 2002], but only one wild bird has arrived since winter 2006/2007 (Zadegan et al. Provide technical assistance on wildlife health monitoring and management practices at staging and wintering areas. It is legally protected in all range states. , The Siberian crane was formally described by Peter Simon Pallas in 1773 and given the binomial name Grus leucogeranus. The Central Asian flock breeds on the basin of the Kunovat river, the north of West Siberia, Russia (Sorokin and Kotyukov 1982), and wintered at Keoladeo National Park, India; however, none have been seen at Keoladeo since winter 2001/2002 (Vardhan 2002), and this flock may now be extinct; unconfirmed, but credible reports of the species have continued from West Siberia, Uzbekistan, Pakistan and India, however (Shilina 2008). Siberian cranes have been observed to have made their annual return to this part of India. Management of water levels to sustain ecosystem function will be critical to the long-term viability of this species (Harris and Zhuang 2010).  The western population may even have wintered as far west as Egypt along the Nile.. Overhunting of Alces alces reduces availability of rhizomes and roots usually exposed by trampling (Degtyarev and Sleptsov 2013). Incorporate management of Western/Central Asian Site Network for Siberian Cranes and other Migratory Waterbirds under the broader Central Asia Flyway Initiative for migratory birds and continue support for captive breeding programmes.  The female produces a higher pitched call which is the "loo" in the duetted "doodle-loo" call.  They were sought after by hunters and specimen collectors.  The specific epithet is derived from the classical Greek words leukos for "white" and geranos for a "crane". Climate change may be a long term threat to breeding sites, with changes in the permafrost layer causing expansion of lakes and the loss of islands, peninsulas and low-lying shorelines (Harris 2008, Van Impe 2013).  Captive breeding was achieved by the International Crane Foundation at Baraboo after numerous failed attempts. The populations declined with changes in landuse, the draining of wetlands for agricultural expansion and hunting on their migration routes. 1996, G. Sundar in litt. Population number. Diet This species is omnivorous (del Hoyo et al. 1996). India. 3.00 value on September 8, 1983 in order to increase public awareness of the plight of this rare and beautiful bird which is facing the threat of extinction. Japan’s largest crane migration spot. The male stands guard nearby. The Siberian crane (Leucogeranus leucogeranus), also known as the Siberian white crane or the snow crane, is a bird of the family Gruidae, the cranes. The wintering site at Poyang in China holds an estimated 98% of the population and is threatened by hydrological changes caused by the Three Gorges Dam and other water development projects. Breeding occurs in territorial pairs at a density estimated in the 1970s to be around one pair per 625 km2 (Johnsgard 1983). The preferred nesting habitat in Yakutia was found to consist of damp tidal flat with well-developed vegetative cover made up of typical polygonal swamp associations of sedges and cottongrass (Eriophorum) forming sparse, short stands (Johnsgard 1983). Of the 15 crane species, this is one of the most threatened (the Whooping Crane of North America, with only 750 living individuals as of 2018, is rarer.)  The genus Leucogeranus had been introduced by the French biologist Charles Lucien Bonaparte in 1855. When calling, the birds stretch their neck forward. In addition, as of 2001, over 9,600 dams had been constructed on the five rivers feeding into Poyang Lake (more are still being constructed). The young birds fledge in about 80 days. 2007). These beautiful birds migrate to India every year during the winter and summer season for food, breeding, and nesting. Voice Flute-like and musical. It arrives on its breeding grounds in late May (Johnsgard 1983), and eggs are generally laid in June (Johnsgard 1983). 2017), though no more than 3,500 have been counted since then (Wang et al. Central Flyway. The eggs hatch in about 27 to 29 days. The first record of the species in Taiwan (China) was made in December 2014, when one individual was observed (K-C. Hung in litt. Non-breeding Resting areas and stopovers on migration tend to consist of large, isolated wetlands (del Hoyo et al. Eleven range states signed a Memorandum of Understanding under the Convention for Migratory Species (CMS MoU) and develop Conservation Plans every three years.  During breeding season, both the male and female cranes are often seen with mud streaking their feathers. 2011). The eastern populations winter mainly in the Poyang Lake area in China. It makes the longest migrations of any crane species, up to 10,000 miles round trip, and habitat loss along its migration routes is a major cause of the crane's population crisis. They maintain feeding territories in winter but may form small and loose flocks, and gather closer at their winter roosts. The Eastern Flyway population breeds between the rivers Kolyma and Yana and south to the Morma mountains in Yakutia. High spring counts at this site appear to be increasing: 1,156 in May 2007, 2,183 in April 2008, 3,128 in May 2010 and 3,400 in May 2011 (Zou Chang-Lin et al. Along eastern migration routes, water has been diverted from the Zhalong and Momoge National Nature Reserve for human use. Historic records from India suggest a wider winter distribution in the past including records from Gujarat, near New Delhi and even as far east as Bihar. Siberian Crane Flyway News: 10. This week, we received an exciting update on the Siberian Crane fall migration in eastern China from Mr. Zhou Haixiang, who recently visited Huanzidong Reservoir in Liaoning Province. 2004, Mirande 2007, 2010, Prentice 2010). of two Siberian Cranes on the wintering grounds in Iran in 2006 (Rusanov 2007). IDENTIFICATION Adults – red skin on forehead, face and sides of the head, white plumage with black wingtips, reddish pink legs; juvenile – plumage mix of white and cinnamon-brown feathers, tan head. attracting approximately 95% of all Siberian cranes globally to replenish their energy from April to May each year [9, 24]. After an exceptional (due to flow restrictions caused by dams) flood on the River Zeya, a tributary of the Amur, in 2013, small numbers have been observed at Muraviovka Park in far east Russia during autumn migration (Heim et al. From 1991 to 2010, 139 captive-bred birds were released at breeding grounds (Kunovat River Basin), migration stopovers (south of Tyumen Region and Volga Delta) and wintering grounds in Iran (Shilina et al. Limited fresh water has caused marshes in the Huanghe Delta National Reserve to dry up, and the harvesting of reeds by people has seriously disturbed cranes (Shan Kai et al. They were earlier thought to be predominantly fish eating on the basis of the serrated edge to their bill, but later studies suggest that they take animal prey mainly when the vegetation is covered by snow. Alauda 81(4): 269-296. 2011). Key protected areas where monitoring occurs include Kytalyk, Chaygurgino, and Middle Aldan (Russia), Momoge, Poyang and Dongting (China), and Naurzum (Kazakhstan). Migration Map (11 x 17 in) ... Visit the UNEP/GEF Siberian Crane Wetland Project website to view interactive maps of the fall 2008 and spring 2009 migrations and click here to view related background information and education material for students on the migration studies. Siberian Crane. In yakut epics Olonkho shamans and shamaness transform into white cranes. Hunting in Pakistan and Afghanistan during migration affects them as well. 2004) and Western Asian flocks (Zadegan et al. Cranes are associated with lakes, such that the Sanskrit word for crane ‘sarasa’ is derived from Saras, meaning, lake or pond. This migration was recorded in the 1960s to occur in groups of 12-15 individuals (Johnsgard 1983). 1996). comm. The expansion of lakes and subsequent habitat modification has been on-going in the breeding grounds of the eastern population since the 1950s (Pshennikov and Germogenov 2008). In Liaoning province, Huanzidong Reservoir in Shenyang region, 900 Siberian Cranes have been recorded during autumn migration (Li Fengshan 2003, Zhou Haixiang 2006), and 1,100 in spring (Bai Qing-Quan 2008), and numbers at Wolong Lake peaked at 1,200 in March 2008 (Bai Qing-Quan 2008). Foster relationships with hunters to improve awareness and promote sustainable hunting of waterbirds, and to engage hunters to protect and report sightings of Siberian Cranes, especially in Western and Central Asia. A Monograph of the Cranes by Frans Ernst Blaauw (1897) 8. Issued by Pakistan. 2013). The most recent drought forced birds to feed in sub-optimal upland habitat. Disturbance from boating activities is also a problem at stopover sites. The fore-crown, face and side of head is bare and brick red, the bill is dark and the legs are pinkish. Passage birds are recorded in Russia, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan (Bragin 2005, Belyalova and Fundukchiev 2007, Shilina 2008). Those that winter in India and Iran use artificial water impoundments and flooded rice fields (del Hoyo et al.  The Siberian crane lacks the complex tracheal coils found in most other cranes but shares this feature with the wattled crane.  The eastern population winters on the Yangtze River and Lake Poyang in China, and the western population in Fereydoon Kenar in Iran. Scientific Name Grus leucogeranus. 2011). Migration routes of Siberian cranes tracked from northeastern Siberia in 1995 (left) and 1996 (right). Download FREE Siberian Crane images. In addi-tion, there have been some unconfirmed Siberian Crane sightings at breeding sites in West Siberia (Markin et al 2007) and regular observations of 2–7 Siberian Cranes during migration stopovers in Naurzum nature reserve in Kazakhstan (Bragin 2003, 2005, in litt. They typically weigh 4.9–8.6 kg (11–19 lb) and stand about 140 cm (55 in) tall.  Satellite telemetry was also used to track the migration of the eastern population in the mid-1990s, leading to the discovery of new resting areas along the species' flyway in eastern Russia and China. 2009). Jilin province hosts birds during both passage periods during March to May and September to November, with numbers at Momoge National Nature Reserve peaking at 3,590 individuals in May 2012 and 3,639 individuals in late October 2012 (Jiang Hongxing 2013). IUCN Red List Status Critically Endangered. The spring migration commences in late-March or early-April (Cramp and Simmons 1980), with birds travelling in pairs or small groups of up to 10 (Johnsgard 1983). The population increase per year is less than 10%, the lowest recruitment rate among cranes. The unison call differed from that of most cranes and some authors suggested that the Siberian crane belonged in the genus Bugeranus along with the wattled crane. 2013). When feeding on submerged vegetation, they often immerse their heads entirely underwater. It has a … Individual variation is very slight and most calls have a dominant frequency of about 1.4 kHz. Vuosalo, E. 2013. This includes: 1) water management at Poyang needs to sustain wetland productivity and ensure that extensive mudflats and shallow water areas are available throughout the winter, 2) strengthen integrated water management at migratory stopover sites in north-east China, guided by on-going monitoring of the condition of these wetlands, to support wetland ecosystems that can support cranes, 3) maintain or improve water quality at key stopover and migration sites to avoid detrimental ecosystem change or direct impacts on crane survival, 4) continue long-term research on the effects of changes in water levels on water plants and water birds at Poyang and at sites in north-east China, and 5) protect and manage additional stopover sites, especially from Liaoning to Jiangxi Provinces, based on further investigation of migratory habitats. An individual that escaped from a private menagerie was shot in the Outer Hebrides in 1891. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. In the case of Siberian cranes, the migratory routes followed by their different populations are also used by a number of other migratory birds which also include 32 endangered species. From 1991 to 2010, 139 captive-bred birds were released at breeding grounds (Kunovat River Basin), migration stopovers (south of Tyumen Region and Volga Delta) and wintering grounds in Iran (Shilina et al. , Siberian cranes are widely dispersed in their breeding areas and are highly territorial.
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